Urology involves surgical and non-surgical specialist care of urological disorders, which are conditions affecting the genitourinary system, including the urinary tract, kidneys, bladder, urethra and ureters and the male reproductive system. It is based on knowledge of internal medicine, but further studies urology specific anatomy, pathology and physiology. It studies the embryology of the genitourinary tract, and anatomy of the ureters, prostate, kidneys, bladder, adrenal glands, abdomen, pelvis, groin, thorax, and central nervous system, including their development and histology. It studies urology and surgery specific pathology, including antibiotics, genetics and molecular biology, immunology, infection, neoplasia, and pharmacology. It studies urology and surgery specific physiology, including cardiovascular, endocrine, and gastro physiology, wound healing, medical physics, metabolism and nutrition, neurophysiology, and respiratory medicine. Urology involves clinical assessment and diagnoses, and performance of urological examinations -including physical examination, urine analysis, blood testing, radiologic/ultrasound/MRI imaging and other urodynamic studies. This field involves differential diagnoses and comorbidities, seeking to collaborate and refer to other medical specialties. Patient management involves acute and elective surgeries, education, therapeutic management, pharmacology, pre, peri and post operative care, collaboration with anaesthetists and specialist nursing staff, and follow-up care. Surgical management involves a range of surgical procedures and techniques, including laparotomy, laparoscopy, nephrectomy, kidney transplant, kidney stone removal, catheter insertion, incisions; urological oncology, reconstructive surgery, and endoscopic procedures, and incorporates modern technologies, such as robotic and laser assisted surgical interventions. These surgical procedures seek to improve function and health and prevent further damage from urological conditions. Urology medical services are provided in both emergency and outpatient settings.