Health Service Categories and Careers


Urology involves surgical and non-surgical specialist care of urological disorders, which are conditions affecting the genitourinary system, including the urinary tract, kidneys, bladder, urethra and ureters and the male reproductive system. It is based on knowledge of internal medicine, but further studies urology specific anatomy, pathology and physiology. It studies the embryology of the genitourinary tract, and anatomy of the ureters, prostate, kidneys, bladder, adrenal glands, abdomen, pelvis, groin, thorax, and central nervous system, including their development and histology. It studies urology and surgery specific pathology, including antibiotics, genetics and molecular biology, immunology, infection, neoplasia, and pharmacology. It studies urology and surgery specific physiology, including cardiovascular, endocrine, and gastro physiology, wound healing, medical physics, metabolism and nutrition, neurophysiology, and respiratory medicine. Urology involves clinical assessment and diagnoses, and performance of urological examinations -including physical examination, urine analysis, blood testing, radiologic/ultrasound/MRI imaging and other urodynamic studies. This field involves differential diagnoses and comorbidities, seeking to collaborate and refer to other medical specialties. Patient management involves acute and elective surgeries, education, therapeutic management, pharmacology, pre, peri and post operative care, collaboration with anaesthetists and specialist nursing staff, and follow-up care. Surgical management involves a range of surgical procedures and techniques, including laparotomy, laparoscopy, nephrectomy, kidney transplant, kidney stone removal, catheter insertion, incisions; urological oncology, reconstructive surgery, and endoscopic procedures, and incorporates modern technologies, such as robotic and laser assisted surgical interventions. These surgical procedures seek to improve function and health and prevent further damage from urological conditions. Urology medical services are provided in both emergency and outpatient settings.

Urology Jobs

Urologists assess, diagnose and treat a range of urological disorders, such as cancers, kidney stones, urinary tract infections, trauma and conditions affecting the male reproductive system, such as prostatitis or erectile dysfunction. They undertake urological examinations, which involve patient histories, physical examinations, urine and blood tests, or medical imaging. This helps to determine function and health and guide diagnoses and patient management. Urologists create management plans, which may involve pharmacology, education and surgeries. They create peri- and post-operative management plans in conjunction with anaesthetic colleagues and in consultation with other medical specialists. They perform a range of surgeries, including open and minimally invasive/endoscopic procedures, reconstructive urology, and urological oncology, which help to reduce disease and improve health, function, and quality of life. To pursue a career as a Urologist, registered doctors from PGY3+ can apply to undertake the SET training program in Urology, a competitive 5-year program administered by RACS and the Urology Society of Australasia and New Zealand (USANZ) which leads to Fellowship and Specialist Registration with AHPRA.

Registrars (Urology) are registered doctors who have completed their medical degree and pre-vocational training (internship and residency/PGY2-3). They have attained general registration with AHPRA and can now undertake specialist/or vocational training positions to broaden and refine their scope of practice and gain experience, skills and competency in their chosen area of medicine. Registrars are very important members of the integrated and multi-disciplinary health care team. They have increasing responsibility for patient care, oversee and support junior doctors and staff, participate in professional development activities and continue to receive important guidance, training, and support from senior staff. Registrars who want to pursue a career in general surgery, or a surgical specialty, can undertake advanced training with RACS. They work under specialist surgeon consultants and develop procedural skills, surgical techniques, clinical expertise, and valuable work experience in providing medical care, and surgical and non-surgical management of patients with conditions relating to their surgical specialty.

Nurse (Peri-operative)