Rheumatology is the medical specialty concerned with diagnosis and holistic management of people with diseases that affect joints, muscles, and bones, including multi-system and autoimmune conditions. Rheumatic disorders include forms of arthritis, autoimmune connective tissue disease, spinal and soft tissue disorders and some metabolic bone disorders, such as osteoporosis and chronic musculoskeletal pain. Clinical practice involves pain management, reduction of inflammation, and preservation of musculoskeletal function. Rheumatology is practiced in a variety of settings, including private practices, public hospitals or in conjunction with research and academia, with a focus on outpatient care and treatment. Rheumatology expertise is relevant to the clinical practice areas of general medicine, nuclear medicine, aged care, or sports medicine. As a field, rheumatology engages in research and investigational opportunities, and plays an important role in the context of a rapidly ageing population with increased rheumatic disease prevalence and a growing demand for specialist rheumatology services. Due to the nature of rheumatic diseases, such as chronic arthritis, and their impact on patients’ lives, including their ability to work and participate in wider social/community activities, rheumatology practice involves early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of inflammation to help prevent long-term pain and disability. Rheumatology utilises clinical examination, particular laboratory-based tests, and imaging techniques, to help guide an accurate diagnosis. Treatments include a range of conventional disease modifying medicines, such as anti-metabolites, ‘biological’ agents, steroids and coordination of physiotherapy and other therapies. Rheumatology can be studied as a subspecialty of Internal Medicine, or as a subspecialty of Paediatrics and Child Health which focusses on paediatric conditions and management of the paediatric patient.