Sport and Exercise Medicine (SEM) is the medical specialty which focuses on the importance of exercise to improve and maintain health, wellbeing, and quality of life, and to help prevent, treat and manage common, chronic and often serious medical conditions, including arthritis, heart disease, cancers, obesity, mental illness and diabetes. An important part of SEM is the promotion and incorporation of safe and effective exercise and physical activity into the daily lives of all community members, whether healthy or unwell, old or young, or elite sporting professionals. This field of medicine delivers services to peak sporting bodies and teams, as well as the community at large. It collaborates with other medical specialties and allied health practice to provide holistic patient care and improved health outcomes. It is based on knowledge and clinical expertise in Internal Medicine, but further studies injury assessment, management and rehabilitation, emergency and acute care, care of athletes and teams, anti-doping, exercise psychology, nutrition, biomechanics, exercise physiology and physical activity for specific populations.