Ophthalmologists are experts in eye health. They have specialised clinical and surgical skills to investigate, diagnose, manage, treat and prevent disorders and diseases that affect the eyes and visual system. They take a record of their patient’s medical and ocular history and undertake eye assessments and investigations to assess visual function. They diagnose conditions and formulate appropriate management and care plans which consider the patient’s condition, indications and contradictions, and social and economic context. They prescribe pharmaceutical medicines, and monitor and manage any ocular and systemic side effects. They formulate surgical plans and perform ophthalmological procedures, which can involve local anaesthetics, laser treatment, surgery and post-procedure care. Ophthalmologists use a range of technical and surgical equipment and materials, and manage peri-operative complications and emergencies. They collaborate with other doctors and health practitioners, train junior doctors, and work both independently and within multidisciplinary teams. They are often involved in research activities. To pursue a career in ophthalmology, registered doctors who have completed two years of pre-vocational training, can apply to undertake vocational training with the RANZCO. This is a five-year program, incorporating basic and advanced training, and various clinical, surgical and professional competencies and knowledge. It leads to Fellowship and Specialist Registration with AHPRA.