Respiratory and Sleep Medicine is concerned with diagnosing, treating, and preventing diseases, infections and disorders that affect the respiratory system and sleep. It is a subspecialty of Internal Medicine which studies the anatomy and physiology of the respiratory system, which includes the nose, nasal passages, sinuses, throat, larynx, trachea (windpipe), lungs, chest wall, and diaphragm. Respiratory conditions include asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), chronic cough, bronchitis, and pneumonia, among others. These can be acute or chronic conditions which can cause pain and inflammation, restrict airflow, affect blood circulation through the lungs, and impact on sleep and quality of life. Respiratory and Sleep Medicine services provide specialist acute care and outpatient consultations in hospitals and private clinics. Diagnostic laboratory testing of lung function, medical imaging, and sleep polysomnography, helps to identify respiratory and sleep disorders and lung damage. Specialists coordinate a range of treatments to manage symptoms, prevent further disease, and improve a patient’s quality of life. These range from medications and non-invasive therapies to surgical procedures or emergency ventilation. This area of medicine demands further clinical research and development of techniques and procedures which respond to the growing prevalence of respiratory illness and infectious disease within the community and population.